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Metan Gazı ve Denizlerin Yükselişi

1 Mart 2007 tarihinde NTV de canlı olarak yayınlanan, Beyaz ve Kadir Çöpdemir’in sunduğu “Biri Bana Anlatsın” programında hayatımda katıldığım ilk canlı tartışma programı olduğu ve çok değerli öğretim üyeleri arasında kaldığım için açıkçası “kurda kuşa yem oldum”. Ortaya koyduğum ve paylaştığım tüm bilgiler çok sağlam belgelere dayanmaktaydı. Öncelikle hayvanların dünyada en fazla Metan gazı yayan varlıklar olduğunu belirttim, daha sonra da Antarktika buzullarının erimesi ile denizlerin en fazla 7 metre yükseleceğini belirttim. Her iki konuda referans kaynakları, İngilizce olanlar ise orijinal diliyle aşağıda bulunmaktadır.

METAN GAZI  İLE İLGİLİ GENEL BİLGİLER: Bu kısımda hayvanların salgıladığı metan gazı ve bunun küresel ısınmaya etkileri ile ilgili bilgileri, kaynaklarını ve ilgili linkleri bulabilirsiniz.

1. Methane is responsible for nearly as much global warming as all other non-CO2 greenhouse gases put together.

The estimated climate forcing of carbon dioxide from 1850 to 2000 is 1.4 W/m2, while the combined forcings of methane, CFCs, nitrous oxide, and tropospheric ozone is 1.6 W/m2 when indirect effects via water and ozone are taken into account

Kaynak: Hansen, James E. and Makiko Sato, “Trends of measured climate forcing agents”, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 98, no. 26, 18 Dec. 2001, p. 14778-14783

2. The most important non-CO2 greenhouse gas is methane, and the number one source of methane worldwide is animal agriculture.

Animal agriculture is also a major source of nitrous oxide emissions, another important greenhouse gas 310 times more powerful than carbon dioxide. 73% of U.S. emissions of nitrous oxide come from animal grazing, manure management, and crop growing practices with half of U.S. crops grown for livestock feed. Agricultural emissions of nitrous oxide in the U.S. increased 9% from 1990 to 2002.

Kaynak: Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 1990-2002,” EPA 430-R-04-003, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 15 April 2004, p. ES-16, http://www.epa.gov/globalwarming/publications/emissions.

3. Methane is produced by a number of sources, including coal mining and landfills but the number one source worldwide is animal agriculture.

Animal agriculture is responsible for 32% of global methane emissions from human activity, including 28% from domesticated livestock and 4% from livestock manure. Natural gas is the second largest source, accounting for 15% of emissions. Kruger, Dina, “The Role of ‘Other Gases’ in Addressing Climate Change.

Kaynak: Environmental Protection Agency, 12 Feb 2004, http://www.iges.or.jp/en/cp/output_all/workshop/usjapan/pdf/06Kruger.pdf

4. Animal agriculture produces more than 100 million tons of methane a year.

Kaynak:“Emissions of methane from livestock”, Climate Change Fact Sheet 32, Information Unit on Climate Change (IUCC), UNEP, 1 May 1993,

5. Atmospheric carbon dioxide comes from a number of natural sources, mainly the decay of plants, volcanic eruptions and as a waste product of animal respiration.

Kaynak: http://www.bbc.co.uk/climate/evidence/carbon_dioxide.shtml

6. The 400-page report by the Food and Agricultural Organisation, entitled Livestock’s Long Shadow, also surveys the damage done by sheep, chickens, pigs and goats. But in almost every case, the world’s 1.5 billion cattle are most to blame. Livestock are responsible for 18 per cent of the greenhouse gases that cause global warming, more than cars, planes and all other forms of transport put together.

Kaynak: http://www.ccchina.gov.cn/en/NewsInfo.asp?NewsId=6564

7. Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels, and Chemicals by Donald L. Klass adlı kitaptan,
– Çimento sektörünün atmosfere yaydığı CO2 miktarı: 0.51 Gton/yıl
– Diğer endüstriyel prosesler tarafından yayılan CO2: 0.47 Gton/yıl
– İnsan solunumu yoluyla yayılan CO2: 1.67 Gton/yıl
– Hayvanlar tarafından yayılan CO2: 3.34 Gton/yıl

DENİZ SEVİYESİNİN 7 m YÜKSELMESİ İLE İLGİLİ GENEL BİLGİLER: Bu kısımda ise Küresel Isınma’nın sonucunda Antartika’da tüm buzulların erimesi halinde deniz seviyesinin yaklaşık 7 m civarında yükseleceği ile ilgili bilgileri, kaynaklarını ve ilgili linkleri bulabilirsiniz.

1. However, Recent trends from Greenland and the West Antarctic ice sheet are potentially more worrisome. Satellites detect a thinning of parts of the Greenland Ice Sheet at lower elevations, and glaciers are disgorging ice into the ocean more rapidly, adding 0.01-0.02 in/yr (0.23 to 0.57 mm/yr) to the sea within the last decade. The West Antarctic Ice Sheet is also showing some signs of thinning. Global warming could cause further thinning of these ice sheets. Either ice sheet, if melted completely, contains enough ice to raise sea level by around 23 ft (7 m). Some scientists suggest that a global temperature rise of only 5.4° F (3° C) may be enough to destabilize Greenland irreversibly. Although such a temperature rise lies within the range of several future climate predictions for the 21st century, the meltdown would probably occur over multiple centuries.

Kaynak: http://www.ccsr.columbia.edu/information/hurricanes/

2. If all glaciers and ice caps melt, the projected rise in sea level will be around 0.5 m. Melting of the Greenland ice sheet would produce 7.2 m of sea level rise, and melting of the Antarctic ice sheet would produce 61.1 m of sea level rise. The collapse of the grounded interior reservoir of the West Antarctic ice sheet would raise sea level by 5-6 m.

Kaynak: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sea_level_rise.

3. Climate models indicate that the local warming over Greenland is likely to be one to three times the global average. Ice sheet models project that a local warming of larger than 3°C [5.4°F], if sustained for millennia, would lead to virtually a complete melting of the Greenland ice sheet with a resulting sea-level rise of about 7 m [23 ft].”

Kaynak: IPCC 3rd Assessment, Synthesis Report, Summary for Policy Makers
http://www.greenpeace.org/international/campaigns/climate-change/impacts/sea_level_rise

4. Atmospheric carbon dioxide comes from a number of natural sources, mainly the decay of plants, volcanic eruptions and as a waste product of animal respiration.

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